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What are the factors that affect the quality of drug storage?

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What are the factors that affect the quality of drug storage?

2019-07-23
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What are the factors that affect the quality of drug storage? The following medicinal plastic bottle manufacturers give us an introduction:


First, the light

The ultraviolet light energy in the light is very large, and it is a catalyst for chemical changes of the drug, which can accelerate the oxidative decomposition of the drug and deteriorate the drug. The long-term sunlight can directly cause or promote the photochemical reaction such as oxidation, reduction, decomposition and polymerization of the drug. . Drugs that are very sensitive to light should be protected from light during storage. All medicines should be protected from direct sunlight.


Second, the air

Air is a mixture of different gases, the main components are nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and other inert gases, while also containing a small amount of solid impurities, microorganisms and water vapor. Air polluted by factories and the like also contains gases such as sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, and chlorine. Among these air components, nitrogen and inert gases do not work for drugs, and other components have a certain impact on the quality of drugs. Among them, oxygen and carbon dioxide are the most important factors affecting the quality of drugs. In chemical reactions, the chemical structure of certain drugs changes.



(1) Oxygen

Oxygen accounts for one-fifth of the volume in the air, and its active nature can decompose, deteriorate, and discolor many reductive drugs. Such as: ferrous salt, mercury salts, easy to be oxidized into high-iron, high-mercury; phenols (such as phenol) and salicylates containing phenolic hydroxyl groups can be oxidized to produce darker colored enamels; And the oil-containing ointment can be rancid due to oxidation; after the various volatile oils are oxidized, they deteriorate to produce odor, precipitate or discolor; vitamin C oxidizes to produce dehydrogenated vitamin C; the adrenaline solution is oxidized in the air, and then fails. 


(2) Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide can cause a change in pH. The effect of drugs on the absorption of carbon dioxide in the air is called carbonation. In general, solid drugs do not readily absorb carbon dioxide when dry, and only a few drugs can carbonate after absorbing carbon dioxide in the air. Most drugs must pass water as a medium. Carbon dioxide first reacts with water to form carbonic acid, and then reacts with the drug to produce new substances. For example, some hydroxides absorb carbon dioxide and become carbonates.


Third, humidity

The amount of water vapor in the air is called humidity, and the humidity varies with the area and temperature. It is the most variable part of the air. Humidity has a great influence on the quality of medicines. If the humidity is too high, it can cause some drugs to undergo hydrolysis reaction and the efficacy is reduced or toxic side effects. Some medicines such as proprietary Chinese medicines are too humid and are prone to deterioration or mildew and cannot be used. When the humidity is too high, it tends to soften, melt, swell, and stick. Humidity is too small, making it easy for some drugs to become weathered or lose moisture and become hard and brittle. The relative humidity of the general warehouse should be kept at 45%-75%. The effects of humidity on the quality of drugs generally have the following conditions:


(1) moisture absorption

Humidity is too large, easy to occur: deliquescence, melting, dilution, hydrolysis, deformation, mold, deterioration, saccharification and other changes;


(2) Weathering

The humidity is too small and it is easy to weather. Weathering refers to the phenomenon that a drug containing crystal water is exposed to dry air and automatically loses part or all of the water of crystallization. The chemical properties of the weathered drug are generally unchanged, but its weight is reduced. Most of the weathered drugs are easy to detect due to their changes in properties. After a few drugs are weathered, they are not easy to find out from the appearance traits. For example, quinine sulfate contains 10 molecules of crystal water. Before and after weathering, the appearance properties are white powder. 


Fourth, the temperature

Temperature, the impact on the quality of the drug has a lot to do with storage, any drug has its own suitable temperature conditions, too high or too low temperature can promote the quality of the drug.


(1) The increase of temperature too high temperature can accelerate the chemical reaction rate of oxidation and decomposition of drugs, accelerate the physical change of drugs such as volatilization and weathering, and deteriorate them. For example, after penicillin and water are dissolved, at 25 degrees Celsius, Placed for 24 hours, that is, most of the failure. If the temperature of the hydrogen peroxide solution is too high, the decomposition can be accelerated to the blasting vessel.


(2) The temperature is too low Some drugs are prone to precipitation, freezing, solidification, and even deterioration and deterioration at too low temperatures. Some cause the container to rupture and cause damage. For example, biological products may lose their activity due to freezing. Emulsions (such as milky white liver oil, emulsion type ointment base) may cause oil-water separation and stratification due to low temperature. Injections, liquids, etc., are easily cracked at minus 5 degrees Celsius. The liquid preparations of the compound quinine and the nictamide and the Chinese patent medicine are prone to precipitation under low temperature conditions.

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